Historie – Otázky – Problémy

K polské recepci české bible 16. století

Polish reception of the Czech Bible in the 16th century

Abstract: Through its older biblical translations Czech provided stimuli for the written language to develop in Poland. In the medieval translation of the Bible into Polish, Czech elements were used to expand the expressive capacity of Polish and to highlight stylistic differences, although in many places the influence of the Czech translation made itself evident at random at the graphic-phonetic and the morphological level.

As the Bible was being translated into Polish at the end of the Middle Ages the conviction emerged that forms closer to Czech were stylistically more appropriate. In the first half of the 16th century this became apparent not only in the solutions of writers and translators, but also and particularly in treatises on language and style. On the other hand the development of written Polish and the development of linguistic awareness led translators and editors of the Polish Bible in the latter half of the 16th century to limit the Bohemization of forms, but the influence of Czech Bible texts continued to be substantial. The Melantrich Bible (1549) was used by translators of the Polish Leopolite Bible (1561), while the author of the working version of the mid-16th century Bible translation had the Severýn Bible on his table. Use of a Czech Bible is also admitted in the case of the Polish translation by Jesuit Jakub Wujk (1599). A Czech biblical text also had an influence on more recent Polish translations both through tradition (i.e. older Polish translations) and directly – through the usage of a new Czech translation.

The new Czech Bible, the Kralice translation, was known in Poland soon after its publication. It was also recommended as a model translation to translators and editors of the classic Protestant translation, the Gdansk Bible (1632). Here the influence of the Czech text was reflected at the text and editorial level, and sometimes the Kralice translation even provided a specific linguistic solution.

Keywords: Bible translations; Czech Bible; Polish Bible; Czech-Polish language relations; 16th century


Dr. Jarosław Malicki je bohemista a polonista. Působí na Ústavu slovanské filologie Wrocławské univerzity. Zabývá se vývojem češtiny ve Slezsku a historickou onomastikou (jaromal@uni.wroc.pl).