Jak důkladně znali gymnazisté Bibli? K užívání biblických textů ve školní výuce v českých zemích v 16. až 18. století
Abstract: Based on an analysis of sources of various kinds (e.g. contemporary pedagogical theory, school rules, various teaching texts, religious reference works and the like) this paper attempts to grasp the extent of knowledge of Scripture and biblical history among students and Latin school graduates from the 16th to the mid-18th century. Partial knowledge of the Bible and biblical texts was all part of elementary education and children could acquire it before they studied at Latin schools (in the home environment, special catacheses and the like), where these foundations were then strengthened. Research into educational institutes of various denominations and types (particularist town schools, non-Catholic private educational establishments, Jesuit schools, Piarist grammar schools and the like) indicates that although the reading of biblical texts as a rule was not included as a priority in Latin school curricula, pupils there did not only have a detailed knowledge of biblical history, but also managed to find their way round Scripture and to quote important passages from it, while dealing with Bible text and biblical realia both in religious tuition and in other subjects (particularly Latin). We do point out the differences that existed between individual schools, though these are in no way fundamental, rather depending on the definition of types of school. Scripture in the vernacular languages came to the fore in religious education particularly in the lower classes of non-Catholic schools, whereas students at Jesuit grammar schools dealt almost exclusively with Latin (or exceptionally Greek) texts. Generally speaking, the pedagogical idea behind working with the Bible was similar in all schools, and in any case the plan was based on the same source even if the exposition, the argument and sometimes even the particular texts that were used might differ from one denomination to another.
Keywords: Bible; history of education; religious education; Early Modern Age
Mgr. Kateřina Bobková-Valentová, PhD., působí v oddělení raného novověku Historického ústavu Akademie věd České republiky, v. v. i. Věnuje se především náboženským a církevním dějinám 17. a 18. století (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Doc. PhDr. Martin Holý, Ph.D., je docentem Ústavu českých dějin Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Karlovy a zástupcem ředitele Historického ústavu Akademie věd ČR. Specializuje se na kulturní, intelektuální a vzdělanostní dějiny střední Evropy v 16. a 17. století (email@example.com).