Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Biblický příběh Salome a jeho reflexe v české kultuře a umění na počátku 20. století 


Abstract: This paper understands the biblical story of Salome to be a cultural phenomenon of the early 20th century and reflects its echoes in Czech art, literature and drama. The synoptic gospels all fail to give a detailed description of Herodʼs daughter, hence the subject provided space for original artistic interpretation, determined by the crisis in the spiritual values of modern society. The visual typology of Salome is closely associated with the representational conventions of the femme fatale, but in particular her distinctively sexualized kinetic potential as a dancer (understood by the evangelists as doomladen) is complicated by the artists through further levels of meaning. Modern treatments see the story of Salome and John the Baptist as an allegory of the tragedy of the modern individual, lacking a spiritual essence of being. It also acquires significance as the conflict between the two sexes when the man is understood by Bible exegesis to be the carrier of a spiritual message while the woman presents the opposite pole of existence and is a biologically determined being. Works of art were already being produced here after 1900 in response to the literary treatment of this subject (the initiation role in the transfer of this topic to the Czech milieu was played by French and English literary models). Within domestic ouput it achieved its greatest significance in the spiritualist and spiritually oriented circle of late symbolists known as the Sursum group.

Klíčová slova: Bible; decadence; femme fatale; gender history; interpretation; culture; modernism; Salome; art

Mgr. Andrea Kozlová je doktorandkou kulturních dějin Katedry dějin umění a kulturního dědictví Filozofické fakulty Ostravské univerzity. Zaměřuje se na dějiny kultury a umění přelomu 19. a 20. století, gender history a zabývá se výzkumem fenoménu femme fatale v české umělecké kultuře v daném období (kozlovaandrea@gmail.com).