Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Ale nám Písmo ukazuje tajemství. Biblické aluze v cyklu Truchlivý Jana Amose Komenského


Abstract: This paper deals with the connection between the choice of biblical quotations used and the persuasive strategy of specific works. For Comenius the Bible was a concealed communication that could be understood with knowledge of the context. Moreover, God himself clarifies his own judgements with new revelations. The clear difference between the books of the Bible selected in Mournful I and II indicates the importance which this method might have: whereas in the first work of Mournful we find an absolutely dominant chiliastic plan (with the most frequently quoted authorities being the Old Testament prophets Isiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, the apocryphal fourth book of Ezra and Job, and from the New Testament the Apocalypse), in the second part the chiliastic element disappeared rapidly to be replaced by an emphasis on non-biblical political subjects. In this case the biblical excerpts can help to resolve the hitherto unsatisfactorily explained reason for the speedy publication of the two versions of the Mournful dialogue, one shortly after the other. If we bear in mind that the fatally important prophecies of the Fourth Book of Ezra appear in the consolatory works of the 1620s and then again in Sad Voice (the last part of Mournful), not published until 1660, we see how the choice of quotations alters with the changing situation at the Bohemian Brethren and we find deep parallels between Comeniusʼs thinking and biblical texts. These parallels clarify not only the importance of his practical work with the Bible, but also his other positions (e.g. chiliasm).

Keywords: Bible; Jan Amos Comenius; quotations; Czech consolatory writings; Truchlivý; Mournful

Mgr. Tomáš Havelka, Ph.D., pracuje jako bohemista v Oddělení pro studium a edici díla Jana Amose Komenského; kromě toho vede semináře starší české literatury na Pedagogické fakultě Univerzity Karlovy v Praze. Zabývá se Komenského českými spisy, českou pobělohorskou literaturou a karnevalovou kulturou (havelka@lorien.site.cas.cz).