Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Dějiny v zrcadle dějepisu: dobové dějepisné učebnice jako školní pramen

Abstract: The study attempts to analyze the current practice of history teaching at Czech schools, taking into account the reform of the curricula and its evaluation. It tries to shed light on the reasons for frequent conflicts between teaching theory and its practical implementation at school, focusing mainly on the relationship between historiography and history as a school subject. Most Czech historians have in fact very little awareness of modern didactic principles, such as using multiperspective in history teaching, neither do they participate in their implementation in schoolwork. While historians are ready to hand over information to history teachers, they do not pay much attention to the cognitive processes themselves and, in comparison with their colleagues from Western Europe or North America, they do not take part in the writing of texts or preparing other teaching materials with a primarily teaching purpose. If anything, they are willing to draw up summaries of facts which the students should memorize and which most often lack any connection to other dimensions of the educational process (in the sense of Bloom?s taxonomy of teaching goals).
Based on the above considerations, the study suggests a typical cognitive situation, which, on the basis of specific school history sources contains teaching goals which can be achieved by the most frequently used teaching methods. This model situation is suggested not only as a particular example of the application of teaching concepts, but also as a free area for playing the role of historian, teacher and student in the teaching of history. Period history textbooks were used as source material.

Keywords: teaching of history, school history sources, history textbooks, contemporary history, multiperspective

Mgr. Kamil Činátl, Ph.D., působí na Ústavu českých dějin FF UK v Praze a zabývá se metodologií historiografie a didaktikou dějepisu. Působí též v rámci Skupiny vzdělávání Ústavu pro studium dějin totalitních režimů, kde se věnuje zejména tvorbě vzdělávacích materiálů pro výuku dějepisu (kamil.cinatl@centrum.cz).