Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Vetřelci, nebo partneři? Důstojníci v očích městské elity na příkladu Dona Baltazara de Marradas y Vique a Servatia Hurdome de la Fossa v Českých Budějovicích za třicetileté války

Abstract: This paper is devoted to the problem of relations between the political representatives of České Budějovice, a prominent royal town of South Bohemia, and representatives of the various military belligerents of the Thirty Years’ War. The specific examples cited examine the phenomenon of the “domestication” of Habsburg officers in the urban environment, where they were brought by their service, as an alternative to the usual animosity that accompanied the forced cohabitation of soldiery with civilians. The cultivation of friendly relations between military dignitaries and the bourgeois elite of České Budějovice was helped by the town belonging to the winning side after the defeat of the Uprising of Estates of Bohemia of 1618–1620. General Baltasar Marradas (1560–1638), a Spanish Officer, developed strong personal ties with the Council of this royal town, and these played an extremely important role in forging deeper cooperation. His protégé, Servatius Hurdome de la Fossa († 1650), an officer originating in the Spanish Netherlands also developed close links with České Budějovice in his private life although his importance for the community wasn’t as great as that of Marradas, whose help the citizens could count on in moments when the military machine threatened the basic functions of the town. For example, during the Saxon invasion in Bohemia, Marradas was not only personally involved in measures aimed at protecting České Budějovice but also in coordinating the potentially conflicting interests and needs of the Army and the civilians. Additionally, Marradas was perceived quite differently in České Budějovice than in many urban communities in south and south-western Bohemia, in whose historic tradition he is portrayed as an unscrupulous robber and tyrant.

Key words: the Thirty Years’ War, towns and soldiers, České Budějovice, Don Baltazar de Marradas y Vique, Servatius Hurdome de la Fossa

Mgr. Tomáš Sterneck, Ph.D., vědecký pracovník oddělení českých dějin raného novověku v Historickém ústavu Akademie věd ČR, v. v. i., se specializuje na české dějiny 15.–17. století s užším zaměřením na města a šlechtu (sterneck@volny.cz)