Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Slovak historiography in the construction of the Marxist version of Czechoslovak history in the fifties of the 20th century


Abstract: In its initial phases, the post-war Slovak history resolutely rejected the two previous interpretations of the country?s history: the popular-nationalist one as well as the inter-war Czechoslovak one. Later, the debate on the future shape of Slovak historiography was profoundly influenced by the Communist coup in 1948, its main feature being the fact that it was not shaped by historians but by the party apparatus on the basis of the „contemporary political practice“.
The role of historians was limited to explaining history in order to align it with given ideological assumptions and political goals of the establishment. The effort to centralize the State put an abrupt end to the debate on national and political position of Slovaks in Czechoslovakia, which was also reflected in historiography.
The ideological struggle against the so-called bourgeois nationalism in the fifties led to a political pressure to link Czech and Slovak history as tightly as possible, which resulted in a re-interpretation of a whole number of crucial periods of Slovak history. In the framework of this process, however, certain issues became controversial between Slovak and Czech historians and disrupted the creation of the marxist version of the common Czechoslovak history.

Key words: marxist historiography, bourgeois nationalism, marxist definition of nation, periodization of history, Great Moravia, Slovak national uprising

Mgr. Adam Hudek, PhD., je vědeckým pracovníkem Historického ústavu Slovenskej akadémie vied v Bratislave. Zabývá se dějinami české a slovenské historiografie ve druhé polovině 20. století, vývojem vědecko-výzkumných institucí na Slovensku a politikou paměti po roce 1989 (adam.hudek@savba.sk).