Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Analytical models of teaching 20th century history


Abstract: The study deals with teaching of history of the 20th century which is mostly described by history textbooks of interpretative type with a traditional emphasis on political history. Their secondary role is that of a means of transmission, i.e. transmission, remembering and reproducing the meaning, which is often considered to be the ultimate teaching goal. The analytical models presented here see these only as „springboard“ to an active creation of meanings, i.e. to apply acquired meanings further, to analyze, evaluate and create them in an activity, for example with a verbal, iconic and graphical text resulting from a range of school historical sources creating another layer of the interpretative text in the work part of the textbook. The study also provides examples of multiple or ambiguous interpretations of – not only – the 20th century history, which encourage and develop students? thinking and help them to develop a critical and cautious approach to interpreting the past. At the same time, such a construction of analytical models is closer to generally acceptable professional practice in historiography. In this sense, history textbooks should be understood as an important part of history literature, not as academic reading.

Keywords: synthetic-analytical (interpretive-work), history textbooks, school history sources, multiperspectivity, analytical models (in the work part of the textbook)

Doc. PaedDr. Viliam Kratochvíl, PhD., působí na Katedře všeobecných dějin Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Komenského v Bratislavě, kde se zabývá didaktikou dějepisu. Zároveň je ředitelem Státního pedagogického ústavu v Bratislavě (viliam.kratochvil736@gmail.com).