Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Elizabeth of Luxembourg, daughter of Sigismund, 1438–1442


Abstract: The article deals with Elisabeth of Luxembourg, queen of Bohemia and Hungary. After the death of her husband, Albrecht of Habsbourg, Elisabeth decided to struggle for the rights of the baby she was still expecting. After she gave birth to her son, Ladislaus the Posthumous, in February 1440, a civil war broke out between her supporters and the followers of Wladisław Jagiello, King of Poland. Both contenders for the throne were later crowned and thus Hungary had two kings at the same time: Ladislaus (1440–1457) and Wladisław (1440–1444). Wladisław?s coronation, however, was an unprecedented step as it openly demonstrated the superiority of the estates over the king. It was in fact only Ladislaus the Posthumous, the only son of the former King of Hungary, who was a legitimate successor to the throne.
After the rival king was crowned, Elisabeth settled in Bratislava (Pressburg) in June 1440, where she lived until her premature death in December 1442. Her situation was virtually hopeless – most Hungarian lords were against her, but still, with the help of Bohemian towns and the Czech Hussite mercenary Jan Jiskra, she managed to reverse the course of events.
In summer 1441, the Pope intervened in the conflict between Elisabeth and Wladisław, in an attempt to negotiate peace given the threat of the Turks. However, the talks broke up and the war continued for another year. It was only thanks to the intercession of the Pope’s ambassador Cardinal Cesarini that an agreement was finally reached in December 1442. Shortly after that, Elisabeth died unexpectedly. Written sources, especially the chamber accounts of the town of Prespurk, suggest that she may have been assassinated.

Key words: Elisabeth of Luxembourg, Ladislaus the Posthumous, Wladisław Jagiello, civil war, assassination, dual rule

PhDr. Daniela Dvořáková, CSc., působí v Historickém ústavu Slovenské akademie věd. Věnuje se pozdněstředověkým dějinám Uher s důrazem na 15. století, na problematiku šlechty, dvorské kultury, komunikace, každodennosti ( danieladvorakova@nextra.sk).