Historie – Otázky – Problémy

Anti-heroes in the memory and the national history of Slovaks


Abstract: The study analyzes the creation of the Slovak national narrative („history“) from the second half of the 18th century onwards. It mostly rested upon national heroes („patriots“, Slovak Národovci) who formulated and embodied the positive elements of the national narrative. The negative side was represented by „national anti-heroes“, i.e. those who were trying to magyarize the society („magyarizators“) as well as those who themselves were magyarized on an individual level („magyarons“). As for the former category, the „magyarizators“, they may or may even not have been ethnic Magyars, while the latter were always of non-Magyar origin. The study provides examples of national anti-heroes, as shaped by the national narrative – they were considered as renegades, traitors of their own nation, who decided to act in the interest of an alien people. It was not only those figures who actually did support the „opposite side“ who were considered as national anti-heroes, but often also those who for various reasons simply did not fit in the national narrative.

Key words: national memory, national history, patriot, magyarizator, magyaron, national hero, national anti-hero

PhDr. Daniela Kodajová, odborná pracovnice Historického ústavu Slovenskej akadémie vied v Bratislavě, se zabývá slovenskými dějinami 19. století, především vývojem ženského hnutí, kontakty mezi slovanskými národy a nacionalismy (histkoda@savba.sk)